Where it’s found: Henry IV Part1, Act 2, Scene 4
How it’s used:
PETO: Item, A capon, . . 2s. 2d.
Item, Sauce,… 4d.
Item, Sack, two gallons, 5s. 8d.
Item, Anchovies and sack after supper, 2s. 6d.
Item, Bread, ob.
Where it comes from: In this line of brilliant and sparkling prose that is indicative of why Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer in the English language, we see the first-ever English attestation of a Romance word.
Portuguese has a word for the same kind of fish, anchova, possibly arriving in Portugal from Genoa or Corsica. As for that, there are two possible sources of that word — either Latin apua (which comes from a Greek word that means “small fry”) or the Basque word anchu, meaning “dried fish.” [source]
Late entry is late, and the Shakespearean source of this word is a lot less interesting than a lot of the other words we use, but I think it provides an interesting example of how something that’s just a throwaway reference in one of his plays has gone on to be used in modern English without much thought.